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n this study will be exposed the theoretical principles necessary for the determination of the exact size of an electron in motion, depending on its speed of travel. Equations, aimed to accurately determines the radius R of the electron in motion, relating the electron moving speed v and its rest mass m0 are discussed. Mechanical moment of inertia of a sphere around of one of its diameters shall be determined by the relationship relating the total kinetic energy of one electron in motion, as a sum of the two components (translational and rotational). Using the theory of Louis de Broglie, which shows the conservation of the pulse, the wavelength (particle associated) has been calculated. Wave frequency (associated with the electron in motion) has been determined and moving electron kinetic energy has been estimated by subtracting the total electron rest energy from total electron energy in movement.

Key-words: Electron Radius, Electron Speed, Rest Mass, Speed of Light, Planck’s Constant, Electron Kinetic Energy, Lorentz Expression, Louis De Broglie Theory, Pulse Conservation, Wavelength Particle Associated, Wave Frequency.

 

  1. Introduction

 

 

As known, matter at the fundamental level consists of quarks and leptons. Quarks combine to form hadrons, mostly baryons and mesons via the strong force and are presumed to still well confined. Among the baryons are the proton (the positive electrical charge) and neutrons (with zero electric charge) that they combine to form atomic nuclei of all chemical elements of the periodic table. Normally, a cloud of electrons (negative electric charge and exactly opposite to that of the proton) surrounds these cores. The assembly formed by a core and a cloud, which comprises negative electrons and positive protons, is an atom. Atoms can be arranged together to form larger and more complex structures such as molecules (Mirsayar et al., 2017).

Chemistry is the science that describes how nuclei and electrons are combined to form various elements and molecules.

In a more cosmological vision matter and antimatter are considered. Each sub-particle of an atom may be counterbalanced with an (anti-) antimatter pair (e.g., electron-positron). An antimatter lsm99bet.org particle differs from its partner by the fact that all its various “fillers” (electric charge, spin, color charge, etc.) are opposite. However, such particles have the same mass.

Although the fundamental laws of physics do not indicate a preference for matter over antimatter, cosmological observations indicate that the universe consists almost entirely of matter.

The material can be found in several states or phases. The four most known states are solid, liquid, gas and plasma. There are also other a little more exotic states such as liquid crystal, Bose-Einstein, super-fluid and supercritical fluid (Bose-Einstein, Wikipedia). When the material passes from one state to another, it performs a phase transition. This phenomenon (which is associated to changes in physical parameters: Pressure, temperature, volume, density, energy, etc.) is studied in thermodynamic via the phase diagrams.

 

When several particles combine to form atoms, the total mass (at rest) of the assembly is smaller than the sum of the masses of (at rest) because in fact a part of the weight of components is converted the binding energy necessary to ensure the cohesion of the cluster (this phenomenon is reported as “the mass defect”). By speculating this defect, nuclear fusion energy is extracted.

The electron, one of the particles of the atom having an elementary charge of negative sign, is fundamental in chemistry, because it participates in almost all types of chemical reactions and is a key element of matter chemical bonding. In physics, on the other hand, the electron is involved in a multitude of phenomena related to radiation effects. Electron features, which manifest them self at the atomic level, explain the electrical conductivity, thermal conductivity, the Vavilov-Cherenkov, incandescence, electromagnetic induction, luminescence, magnetism, electromagnetic radiation, optical reflection and superconductivity that are macroscopic widely exploited in the industrial applications (Cherenkov, Wikipedia).

Moreover, electron, with its lowest mass compared to any other charged particles, is regularly used in the study of matter.

The concept of an indivisible amount of electric charge was developed from 1838 by the British naturalist Richard Laming to explain the chemical properties of atoms (Laming,